Volume 4 (January 2001)
G. Bechly et al. : A revision and phylogenetic study of Mesozoic Aeshnoptera, with description of numerous new taxa (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera)
ISBN 3-931689-07-7230 pp. , 137 textfig. , 48 pls. , price 40 €
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All Mesozoic Aeshnoptera are revised and their phylogenetic relationships are reconstructed. The type species of the genus Mesuropetala is redescribed, and Mesuropetala muensteri (GERMAR, 1839) comb. nov. is considered as its valid name instead of Mesuropetala koehleri (HAGEN, 1848). Mesuropetala magna sp. nov. is described from the Lower Cretaceous of Russia. "Aeschna" antiqua VAN DER LINDEN, 1827 and "Aeschna" schmiedeli GIEBEL, 1856 could be synonyms of Mesuropetala muensteri or Protolindenia wittei, and thus are here considered as nomina dubia in Anisoptera incertae sedis. Cymatophlebiopsis pseudobubas HANDLIRSCH, 1939 is regarded as junior subjective synonym of Aeschnopsis perampla (BRODIE, 1945), and the genus Aeschnopsis HANDLIRSCH, 1939 stat. restor. is transferred to Mesuropetalidae. Necrogomphus jurassicus (GIEBEL, 1856) from the Lower Cretaceous of England is attributed to the genus Aeschnopsis.
Furthermore, two new species, Aeschnopsis perkinsi sp. nov. and A. tischlingeri sp. nov. are described from the Upper Jurassic of Germany. Liupanshania HONG, 1982 (L. sijiensis HONG, 1982) is transferred from Aeshnidae to a new family Liupanshaniidae fam. nov. that is regarded as sistergroup of Mesuropetalidae, and also includes the new taxa Paramesuropetala gigantea gen. et sp. nov. and Araripeliupanshania annesusae gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil, Paraliupanshania torvaldsi gen. et sp. nov. and P. rohdendorfi sp. nov. from the lower Upper Cretaceous of Russia, and Paraliupanshania britannica sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous of England.
Progobiaeshna liaoningensis gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Lower Cretaceous of China in a new family Progobiaeshnidae fam. nov. which is regarded as sistergroup of Aeshnida within Aeshnomorpha taxon nov. - Panaeshnida taxon nov. Gobiaeshna PRITYKINA, 1977 (G. occulta PRITYKINA, 1977) is preliminarily attributed to Progobiaeshnidae fam. nov. as well.
Cymatophlebia longialata (MÜNSTER in GERMAR, 1839) from the Upper Jurassic of Germany is redescribed and all Cymatophlebiidae are revised. Curious (autapomorphic) structures on the male abdomen of Cymatophlebia and Rudiaeschna are described in detail and their function is discussed. The phylogenetic position of Cymatophlebiidae within Anisoptera is discussed and seven new species are described: Cymatophlebia kuempeli sp. nov., Cymatophlebia pumilio sp. nov., Cymatophlebia suevica sp. nov., and Cymatophlebia herrlenae sp. nov. from the Upper Jurassic of Germany, as well as Cymatophlebia purbeckensis sp. nov., ?Valdaeshna andressi sp. nov., and Prohoyaeshna milleri gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous of England. "Cymatophlebia" mongolica COCKERELL, 1924 is transferred as nomen dubium to Anisoptera incertae sedis.
Libellulium WESTWOOD, 1854 is rejected as synonym of Cymatophlebia, and its type species L. agrias WESTWOOD, 1854 is regarded as nomen dubium, probably belonging to Valdaeshninae subfam. nov. within Cymatophlebiidae. The two holotype specimens of Cymatophlebia suevica sp. nov., and Cymatophlebia herrlenae sp. nov. represent the first and currently sole fossil insect remains known from the Malm beta of the Swabian Alb in Southern Germany. These two new species furthermore have to be regarded as the oldest known crowngroup representatives of Anisoptera. With an estimated wing span of more than 220 mm, Cymatophlebia suevica sp. nov. and Prohoyaeshna milleri gen. et sp. nov. seem to represent the biggest Anisoptera and even the biggest crowngroup Odonata known at all. Rudiaeschnidae fam. nov. is proposed as new family for Rudiaeschna limnobia DONG & ZI-GUANG, 1996 (Lower Cretaceous, China).
This new family is regarded as sistergroup of Cymatophlebiidae and classified with the latter in a new superfamily Cymatophlebioidea stat. nov. Paracymatophlebia splendida gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Jurassic of Kazakhstan is described in a new family Paracymatophlebiidae fam. nov. which is regarded as sistergroup of Euaeshnida (together: Paneuaeshnida taxon nov.). Eumorbaeschnidae fam. nov. from the Upper Jurassic of Germany is proposed as most basal family of Euaeshnida, based on Eumorbaeschna jurassica (CARPENTER, 1932) gen. et comb. nov. as "replacement" name for the aeshnid described by NEEDHAM (1907) under the incorrect name "Morbaeschna muensteri" because of a misidentified type species.
The genus Morbaeschna NEEDHAM (1907) is synonymized with the genus Mesuropetala. Anomalaeschna berndschusteri gen. et sp. nov. (Lower Cretaceous, Brazil), Paramorbaeschna araripensis gen. et sp. nov. (Lower Cretaceous, Brazil), Progomphaeschnaoides ursulae gen. et sp. nov. and Progomphaeschnaoides staniczeki sp. nov. (Lower Cretaceous, Brazil), Plesigomphaeschnaoides mongolensis gen. et sp. nov. (Lower Cretaceous, Mongolia) and Plesigomphaeschnaoides pindelskii sp. nov. (Lower Cretaceous, England) are described within Neoaeshnida - Gomphaeschnidae in a new subfamily Gomphaeschnaoidinae subfam. nov. In the same group three new species, Gomphaeschnaoides magnus sp. nov., Gomphaeschnaoides petersi sp. nov., and Gomphaeschnaoid
es betoreti sp. nov. are described from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil, together with a redescription of the type species Gomphaeschnaoides obliquus, including its previously unknown forewings and body. "Gomphaeschna" paleocenica and "Gomphaeschna" danica from the Palaeocene of Denmark are preliminarily transferred to the new genus Plesigomphaeschnaoides gen. nov. as well. Sinojagoria imperfecta gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Lower Cretaceous of China and regarded as most basal representative of Gomphaeschnaoidinae subfam. nov. ?Gomphaeschna sibirica sp. nov. and Baissaeshna zherikhini sp. nov. are described from the Lower Cretaceous of Russia.
The genus Cymatophlebiella PRITYKINA, 1968 is excluded from Cymatophlebiidae and regarded as a basal Aeshnoptera incertae sedis; its type species C. euryptera PRITYKINA, 1968 is redescribed. Several taxonomic errors in LOHMANN (1996a-c) are corrected. Some general conclusions concerning the evolution and historic biogeography of Aeshnoptera are suggested, including an Mid-Jurassic Palaearctic origin and radiation of this monophylum.
Totally 26 genera and 52 species of fossil dragonflies are revised. The following new taxonomic decisions are found in this publication: 5 taxa nov., 5 fam. nov., 2 subfam. nov., 2 trib. nov., 12 gen. nov., 29 sp. nov., 8 syn. nov., 5 stat. nov., 6 comb. nov., 2 nom. correct., 3 stat. restor., 3 sensu nov., 5 pos. nov.